Senin, 26 April 2010


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Raden Ayu Kartini

Born 21 April 1879
Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia
Died 17 September 1904 (aged 25)
Other names Raden Ajeng Kartini
Known for National heroine
Religion Islam
Spouse(s) Raden Adipati Joyodiningrat

Raden Ayu[1] Kartini, (21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904), or sometimes known as Raden Ajeng Kartini, was a prominent Javanese and an Indonesian national heroine. Kartini is known as a pioneer in the area of women's rights for native Indonesians.Contents [hide]
1 Biography
2 Letters
3 Ideas
3.1 Condition of Indonesian women
3.2 Religion
3.3 Vegetarian Lifestyle
3.4 Further studies and teaching
4 Notes
5 References


Kartini was born into an aristocratic Javanese family in a time when Java was still part of the Dutch colony, the Dutch East Indies. Kartini's father, Raden Mas Sosroningrat, became Regency Chief of Jepara, and her mother was Raden Mas' first wife, but not the most important one. At this time, polygamy was a common practice among the nobility.

Kartini's father, R. M. A. A. Sosroningrat, was originally the district chief of Mayong. Her mother was M. A. Ngasirah, the daughter of Kyai Haji Madirono, a teacher of religion in Teluwakur, Jepara, and Nyai Haji Siti Aminah. At that time, colonial regulations specified that a Regency Chief must marry a member of the nobility and because M. A. Ngasirah was not of sufficiently high nobility[2], her father married a second time to Raden Ajeng Woerjan (Moerjam), a direct descendant of the Raja of Madura. After this second marriage, Kartini's father was elevated to Regency Chief of Jepara, replacing his second wife's own father, R. A. A. Tjitrowikromo.

Kartini was the fifth child and second eldest daughter in a family of eleven, including half siblings. She was born into a family with a strong intellectual tradition. Her grandfather, Pangeran Ario Tjondronegoro IV, became a Regency Chief at the age of 25 while Kartini's older brother Sosrokartono was an accomplished linguist.

Kartini's family allowed her to attend school until she was 12 years old. Here, among other subjects, she learnt to speak fluent Dutch, an unusual accomplishment for Javanese women at the time[3]. After she turned 12 she was 'secluded' at home, a common practice among Javanese nobility, to prepare young girls for their marriage. During seclusion girls were not allowed to leave their parents' house until they were married, at which point authority over them was transferred to their husbands. Kartini's father was more lenient than some during his daughter's seclusion, giving her such privileges as embroidery lessons and occasional appearances in public for special events.

Albert Einstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Einstein)
"Einstein" redirects here. For other uses, see Einstein (disambiguation).
Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein, 1921
Born 14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, USA
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, USA
Citizenship Württemberg/Germany (until 1896)
Stateless (1896–1901)
Switzerland (since 1901)
Austria (1911–12)
Germany (1914–33)
United States (since 1940)[1]
Ethnicity Jewish
Fields Physics
Institutions Swiss Patent Office (Bern)
University of Zurich
Charles University in Prague
ETH Zurich
Prussian Academy of Sciences
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
University of Leiden
Institute for Advanced Study
Alma mater ETH Zurich
University of Zurich
Doctoral advisor Alfred Kleiner
Other academic advisors Heinrich Friedrich Weber
Notable students Ernst G. Straus
Nathan Rosen
Leo Szilard
Raziuddin Siddiqui[2]
Known for General relativity
Special relativity
Photoelectric effect
Brownian motion
Mass-energy equivalence
Einstein field equations
Unified Field Theory
Bose–Einstein statistics
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Copley Medal (1925)
Max Planck Medal (1929)
Time Person of the Century

Albert Einstein (pronounced /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n] ( listen); 14 March 1879–18 April 1955) was a German-born Swiss-American theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time. He is often regarded as the father of modern physics.[3] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."[4]

His many contributions to physics include the special and general theories of relativity, the founding of relativistic cosmology, the first post-Newtonian expansion, explaining the perihelion advance of Mercury, prediction of the deflection of light by gravity and gravitational lensing, the first fluctuation dissipation theorem which explained the Brownian movement of molecules, the photon theory and wave-particle duality, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids, the zero-point energy concept, the semiclassical version of the Schrödinger equation, and the quantum theory of a monatomic gas which predicted Bose–Einstein condensation.

Einstein published more than 300 scientific and over 150 non-scientific works.[5] Einstein additionally wrote and commentated prolifically on numerous philosophical and political issues.

Adam Malik

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Adam Malik

3rd Vice President of Indonesia
In office
23 March 1978 – 12 March 1983
President Suharto
Preceded by Hamengkubuwana IX
Succeeded by Umar Wirahadikusumah
26th President of the United Nations General Assembly
In office
Preceded by Edvard Hambro
Succeeded by Stanisław Trepczyński
People's Representative Council Speaker
In office
Preceded by Idham Chalid
Succeeded by Daryatmo

Born 22 July 1917
Pematangsiantar, Dutch East Indies
Died 5 September 1984 (aged 67)
Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
Political party Golongan Karya
Profession Politician
Religion Islam

Adam Malik (22 July 1917 – 5 September 1984) was Indonesia's third vice president.Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Career
3 Transition from Old Order to the New Order
4 New Order
5 Vice Presidency
6 Awards and commendations
7 Notes
8 External links

Early life

Malik was born in Pematang Siantar, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies to Abdul Malik and Salamah Lubis. After completing Junior High School, he received his first job as a shopkeeper, filling in time by reading books and increasing his knowledge.[1]

Malik quickly developed an interest in politics and aged just 17, became the Chairman of the Pematang Siantar branch of Partindo (Indonesia Party). In this position, Malik campaigned for the Dutch Colonial Government to grant independence to Indonesia. As a result of this, Malik was put in prison for disobeying the Colonial Government's ban on political assemblies. Once he was freed, Malik left Pematang Siantar for Jakarta.[1]

Ir. Sukarno

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Soekarno)
This is an Indonesian name; it does not have a family name.Sukarno

1st President of Indonesia
In office
18 August 1945 – 12 March 1967
Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir
Amir Sjarifuddin
Muhammad Hatta
Abdul Halim
Muhammad Natsir
Soekiman Wirjosandjojo
Ali Sastroamidjojo
Burhanuddin Harahap
Djuanda Kartawidjaja
Vice President Mohammad Hatta
Succeeded by Suharto

Born 6 June 1901
Blitar, Dutch East Indies
Died 21 June 1970 (aged 69)
Jakarta, Indonesia
Political party None
Spouse(s) Oetari
Inggit Garnasih
Kartini Manoppo
Ratna Sari Dewi Soekarno
Yurike Sanger
Heldy Djafar
Amelia de la Rama Braly
Religion Islam

Sukarno, born Kusno Sosrodihardjo (6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. He helped the country win its independence from the Netherlands and was President from 1945 to 1967, presiding with mixed success over the country's turbulent transition to independence. Sukarno was forced out of power by one of his generals, Suharto, who formally became President in March 1967.Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 Background

Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie

Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie was born in Pare-Pare, South Sulawesi, to Alwi Abdul Jalil Habibie and R. A. Tuti Marini Puspowardojo. He studied at the Bandung Institute of Technology for one year. Although B.J. Habibie himself was born in South Sulawesi, B.J. Habibie's parents didn't come from this region. His father was an agriculturist from Gorontalo and his mother was a Javanese noblewoman from Yogyakarta, who met when both of them were studying in Bogor[1].

Habibie's father was descendant of Bugis migrants to Gorontalo that was employed by local rulers as soldiers to protect Gorontalo's coast from Maguindanao pirates. [2].

In 1950, when Habibie was fourteen, he became acquainted with Lieutenant Colonel Suharto. The future Indonesian President was then stationed in Makassar to put down a separatist rebellion and lived in a house across the road from the Habibie family's. Suharto quickly became a family friend. He was present during the death of Habibie's father and became an intermediary when one of his soldiers wanted to marry Habibie's sister [3].

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

6th President of Indonesia
Assumed office
20 October 2004
Vice President Jusuf Kalla
Preceded by Megawati Sukarnoputri

Born 9 September 1949 (age 60)
Tremas, Pacitan, Indonesia
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Kristiani Herawati
Children Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono
Edhie Baskoro Yudhoyono
Residence Merdeka Palace
Alma mater Magelang Military Academy
United States Army Command and General Staff College
Webster University
Bogor Agricultural Institute
Occupation Military (Retired)
Religion Islam
Military service
Allegiance Indonesian National Armed Forces
Service/branch Indonesian National Army
Years of service 1973–2000
Rank Four-star General
Awards Adhi Makayasa (1973)

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, AC (pronounced [/suːsiːlɵ bɑːmbɑːŋ juːdɒjɵnɵ/] (help·info)), (born 9 September 1949) is a retired Indonesian Army general officer, and the current President of Indonesia. Yudhoyono won the 2004 Indonesian presidential election defeating incumbent President Megawati Sukarnoputri. Widely known in Indonesia by his initials "SBY", he was sworn into office on 20 October 2004, together with Jusuf Kalla as Vice President, and again on 20 October 2009, together with Boediono as Vice President. He ran for re-election in 2009 with Boediono as his running mate, and won with an outright majority of the votes in the first round of balloting.

John F. Kennedy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other people named John Kennedy, see John Kennedy (disambiguation).
For other people named Jack Kennedy, see Jack Kennedy (disambiguation).
"JFK" redirects here. For other uses, see JFK (disambiguation).
John F. Kennedy

35th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960
Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Succeeded by Benjamin A. Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 11th district
In office
January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953
Preceded by James Michael Curley
Succeeded by Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.

Born May 29, 1917
Brookline, Massachusetts
Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46)
Dallas, Texas
Birth name John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy
Children Arabella Kennedy
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr.
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Alma mater Harvard University (S.B.)[1]
Religion Roman Catholic
Military service
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1941–1945
Rank Lieutenant
Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109
Battles/wars World War II
Solomon Islands campaign
Awards Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Purple Heart
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with 3 bronze stars
World War II Victory Medal[2]
The coat of arms of John F. Kennedy[3]

Information ~
Date of origin 1961
Shield Sable three helmets in profile Or within a bordure per saltire gules and ermine.
Crest and mantle Upon a torse Or and sable, Between two olive branches a cubit sinister arm in armour erect the hand holding a sheaf of four arrows points upwards all proper, the mantling gules doubled argent.

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.

After Kennedy's military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 during World War II in the South Pacific, his aspirations turned political. With the encouragement and grooming of his father, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., Kennedy represented Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat, and served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one of the closest in American history. He was the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), the first President born in the 20th century, and the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43.[4][5] Kennedy is the first and only Catholic and the first Irish American president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.[6] Events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War.

Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before he could be put on trial. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that Oswald was the assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the probability of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. The event proved to be an important moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the nation and the ensuing political repercussions. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.

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